Program Arcade Games
With Python And Pygame

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Chapter 7: Introduction to Lists

7.1 Data Types

Video: Introduction to Lists

So far this book has shown four types of data:

Python can display what type of data a value is with the type function. Admittedly, this function isn't terribly useful for the any other programming we will do in this book, but it is good to use the function just this once to demonstrate the types of data introduced so far. Type the following into the interactive IDLE shell. (Don't create a new window and type this in as a program; it won't work.)

type(3)
type(3.145)
type("Hi there")
type(True)
Output:
>>> type(3)
<class 'int'>

>>> type(3.145)
<class 'float'>

>>> type("Hi there")
<class 'str'>

>>> type(True)
<class 'bool'>

It is also possible to use the type function on a variable to see what kind of data is in it.

x = 3
type(x)

The two new types of data introduced in this chapter are Lists and Tuples. Try running the following commands in the interactive Python shell and see what is displayed:

type(  (2,3,4,5) )
type(  [2,3,4,5] )

7.2 Working With Lists

You've created grocery lists, to-do lists, bucket lists, but how do you create a list on the computer?

fig.grocery_list
Figure 7.1: Even computers use lists

Try these examples using IDLE's command line. To create a list and print it out, try the following:

>>> x = [1,2]
>>> print(x)
[1, 2]

To print an individual element in an array:

>>> print(x[0])
1

This number with the item's location is called the index. Note that list locations start at zero. So a list with 10 elements does not have an element in spot [10]. Just spots [0] through [9]. It can be very confusing to create an array of 10 items and then not have an item 10, but most computer languages start counting at 0 rather than 1.

Think of a list as an ice cube tray that holds numbers, as shown in Figure 7.2. The values are stored inside each tray spot, and written on the side of the tray are numbers starting at zero that identify the location of each spot.

Remember, there are two sets of numbers to consider when working with a list of numbers: the position and the value. The position, also known as index, refers to where a value is. The value is the actual number stored at that location. When working with an array, make sure to think if you need the location or the value.

It is easy to get the value given the location, but it is harder to get the location given the value. Chapter 16 is dedicated to answering how to find the location of a particular value.

fig.ice_cube_tray
Figure 7.2: Lists are like ice cube trays

A program can assign new values to an individual element in a list. In the case below, the first spot at location zero (not one) is assigned the number 22.

>>> x[0] = 22
>>> print(x)
[22, 2]

Also, a program can create a “tuple.” This data type works just like a list, but with two differences. First, it is created with parentheses rather than square brackets. Second, it is not possible to change the tuple once created. See below:

>>> x = (1,2)
>>> print(x)
(1, 2)
>>> print(x[0])
1
>>> x[0] = 22
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#18>", line 1, in <module>
    x[0] = 22
TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment
>>>

As can be seen from the output of the code above, we can't assign an item in the tuple a new value. Why would we want this limitation? First, the computer can run faster if it knows the value won't change. Second, some lists we don't want to change, such as a list of RGB colors for red. The color red doesn't change, therefore an immutable tuple is a better choice.

An array is a list of objects. It is an important data structure in computer science. The “list” data type in Python is very similar to an array data structure.

7.3 Iterating Through a List

Video: Iterating Through a List

If a program needs to iterate through each item in a list, such as to print it out, there are two types of for loops that can do this.

The first method to iterate through each item in a loop is by using a “for-each” loop. This type of loop takes a collection of items, and loops the code once per item. It will take a copy of the item and store it in a variable for processing.

The format of the command:
for item_variable in list_name:

Here are some examples:

my_list = [101,20,10,50,60]
for item in my_list:
    print( item )
Output:
101
20
10
50
60

Programs can store strings in lists too:

my_list = ["Spoon", "Fork", "Knife"]
for item in my_list:
    print(item)
Output:
Spoon
Knife
Fork

Lists can even contain other lists. This iterates through each item in the main list, but not in sublists.

my_list = [ [2,3], [4,3], [6,7] ]
for item in my_list:
    print(item)
Output:
[2,3]
[4,3]
[6,7]

The other way to iterate through a list is to use an index variable and directly access the list rather than through a copy of each item. To use an index variable, the program counts from 0 up to the length of the list. If there are ten elements, the loop must go from 0 to 9 for a total of ten elements.

The length of a list may be found by using the len function. Combining that with the range function allows the program to loop through the entire list.

my_list = [101,20,10,50,60]
for i in range( len(my_list) ):
    print( my_list[i] )
Output:
101
20
10
50
60

This method is more complex, but is also more powerful. Because we are working directly with the list elements, rather than a copy, the list can be modified. The for-each loop does not allow modification of the original list.

7.4 Adding to a List

New items may be added to a list (but not a tuple) by using the append command. For example:

my_list = [2,4,5,6]
print(my_list)
my_list.append(9)
print(my_list)
Output:
[2,4,5,6]
[2,4,5,6,9]
Video: Appending to a list

Side note: If performance while appending is a concern, it is very important to understand how a list is being implemented. For example, if a list is implemented as an array data type, then appending an item to the list is a lot like adding a new egg to an full egg carton. A new egg carton must be built with thirteen spots. Then twelve eggs are moved over. Then the thirteenth egg is added. Finally the old egg carton is recycled. Because this can happen behind the scenes in a function, programmers may forget this and let the computer do all the work. It would be more efficient to simply tell the computer to make an egg carton with enough spots to begin with. Thankfully, Python does not implement a list as an array data type. But it is important to pay attention to your next semester data structures class and learn how all of this works.

To create a list from scratch, it is necessary to create a blank list and then use the append function. This example creates a list based upon user input:

my_list = [] # Empty list
for i in range(5):
    userInput = input( "Enter an integer: ")
    userInput = int( userInput )
    my_list.append(userInput)
    print(my_list)
Output:
Enter an integer: 4
[4]
Enter an integer: 5
[4, 5]
Enter an integer: 3
[4, 5, 3]
Enter an integer: 1
[4, 5, 3, 1]
Enter an integer: 8
[4, 5, 3, 1, 8]

If a program needs to create an array of a specific length, all with the same value, a simple trick is to use the following code:

# Create an array with 100 zeros.
my_list = [0] * 100

7.5 Summing or Modifying a List

Video: Summing a List

Creating a running total of an array is a common operation. Here's how it is done:

# Copy of the array to sum
myArray = [5,76,8,5,3,3,56,5,23]

# Initial sum should be zero
arrayTotal = 0

# Loop from 0 up to the number of elements
# in the array:
for i in range( len(myArray) ):
	# Add element 0, next 1, then 2, etc.
	arrayTotal += myArray[i]
	
# Print the result
print( arrayTotal )

The same thing can be done by using a for loop to iterate the array, rather than count through a range:

# Copy of the array to sum
myArray = [5,76,8,5,3,3,56,5,23]

# Initial sum should be zero
arrayTotal = 0

# Loop through array, copying each item in the array into
# the variable named item.
for item in myArray:
	# Add each item
	arrayTotal += item
	
# Print the result
print( arrayTotal )

Numbers in an array can also be changed by using a for loop:

# Copy of the array to modify
myArray = [5,76,8,5,3,3,56,5,23]

# Loop from 0 up to the number of elements
# in the array:
for i in range( len(myArray) ):
	# Modify the element by doubling it
	myArray[i] = myArray[i] * 2
	
# Print the result
print( myArray )

However version 2 does not work at doubling the values in an array. Why? Because item is a copy of an element in the array. The code below doubles the copy, not the original array element.

# Copy of the array to modify
myArray = [5,76,8,5,3,3,56,5,23]

# Loop through each element in myArray
for item in myArray:
	# This doubles item, but does not change the array
	# because item is a copy of a single element.
	item = item * 2
	
# Print the result
print( myArray )

7.6 Slicing Strings

Video: Splitting Strings

Strings are actually lists of characters. They can be treated like lists with each letter a separate item. Run the following code with both versions of x:

x = "This is a sample string"
#x = "0123456789"

print("x=",x)

# Accessing a single character
print("x[0]=",x[0])
print("x[1]=",x[1])

# Accessing from the right side
print("x[-1]=",x[-1])

# Access 0-5
print("x[:6]=",x[:6])
# Access 6
print("x[6:]=",x[6:])
# Access 6-8
print("x[6:9]=",x[6:9])

Strings in Python may be used with some of the mathematical operators. Try the following code and see what Python does:

a = "Hi"
b = "There"
c = "!"
print(a + b)
print(a + b + c)
print(3 * a)
print(a * 3)
print((a * 2) + (b * 2))

It is possible to get a length of a string. It is also possible to do this with any type of array.

a = "Hi There"
print(len(a))

b = [3,4,5,6,76,4,3,3]
print(len(b))

Since a string is an array, a program can iterate through each character element just like an array:

for character in "This is a test.":
    print (character)

Exercise: Starting with the following code:

months = "JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec"

n = int(input("Enter a month number: "))

Print the three month abbreviation for the month number that the user enters. (Calculate the start position in the string, then use the info we just learned to print out the correct substring.)

7.7 Secret Codes

This code prints out every letter of a string individually:

plain_text = "This is a test. ABC abc"

for c in plain_text:
    print (c, end=" ")
Video: Secret Codes

Computers do not actually store letters of a string in memory; computers store a series of numbers. Each number represents a letter. The system that computers use to translate numbers to letters is called Unicode. The full name for the encoding is Universal Character Set Transformation Format 8-bit, usually abbreviated UTF-8.

The Unicode chart covers the Western alphabet using the numbers 0-127. Each Western letter is represented by one byte of memory. Other alphabets, like Cyrillic, can take multiple bytes to represent each letter. A partial copy of the Unicode chart is below:

ValueCharacterValueCharacterValueCharacterValueCharacter
40(61=82R103g
41)62>83S104h
42*63?84T105i
43+64@85U106j
44,65A86V107k
45-66B87W108l
46.67C88X109m
47/68D89Y110n
48069E90Z111o
49170F91[112p
50271G92\113q
51372H93]114r
52473I94^115s
53574J95_116t
54675K96`117u
55776L97a118v
56877M98b119w
57978N99c120x
58:79O100d121y
59;80P101e122z
60<81Q102f

For more information about ASCII (which has the same values as Unicode for the Western alphabet) see:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII

For a video that explains the beauty of Unicode, see here:
http://hackaday.com/2013/09/27/utf-8-the-most-elegant-hack

This next set of code converts each of the letters in the prior example to its ordinal value using UTF-8:

plain_text = "This is a test. ABC abc"

for c in plain_text:
    print (ord(c), end=" ")

This next program takes each UTF-8 value and adds one to it. Then it prints the new UTF-8 value, then converts the value back to a letter.

plain_text = "This is a test. ABC abc"

for c in plain_text:
    x = ord(c)
    x = x + 1
    c2 = chr(x)
    print (c2, end="")

The next code listing takes each UTF-8 value and adds one to it, then converts the value back to a letter.

fig.encryption
# Sample Python/Pygame Programs
# Simpson College Computer Science
# http://programarcadegames.com/
# http://simpson.edu/computer-science/

# Explanation video: http://youtu.be/sxFIxD8Gd3A

plain_text = "This is a test. ABC abc"

encrypted_text = ""
for c in plain_text:
    x = ord(c)
    x = x + 1
    c2 = chr(x)
    encrypted_text = encrypted_text + c2
print(encrypted_text)

Finally, the last code takes each UTF-8 value and subtracts one from it, then converts the value back to a letter. By feeding this program the output of the previous program, it serves as a decoder for text encoded by the prior example.

fig.decryption
# Sample Python/Pygame Programs
# Simpson College Computer Science
# http://programarcadegames.com/
# http://simpson.edu/computer-science/

# Explanation video: http://youtu.be/sxFIxD8Gd3A

encrypted_text = "Uijt!jt!b!uftu/!BCD!bcd"

plain_text = ""
for c in encrypted_text:
    x = ord(c)
    x = x - 1
    c2 = chr(x)
    plain_text = plain_text + c2
print(plain_text)

7.8 Associative Arrays

Python is not limited to using numbers as an array index. It is also possible to use an associative array. An associative array works like this:

# Create an empty associative array
# (Note the curly braces.)
x = {}

# Add some stuff to it
x["fred"] = 2
x["scooby"] = 8
x["wilma"] = 1

# Fetch and print an item
print(x["fred"])

You won't really need associative arrays for this class, but I think it is important to point out that it is possible.

7.9 Review

7.9.1 Multiple Choice Quiz

Click here for a multiple-choice quiz.

7.9.2 Short Answer Worksheet

Click here for the chapter worksheet.

7.9.3 Lab

Click here for the chapter lab.


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